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South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. It has a population of 1.29 million. It consists of four metropolitan boroughs: Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham, and City of Sheffield. South Yorkshire was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972.

Lying on the east side of the Pennines, South Yorkshire is landlocked, and borders Derbyshire (to the south-west), West Yorkshire (to the northwest), North Yorkshire (to the north), the East Riding of Yorkshire (to the northeast), Lincolnshire (to the east) and Nottinghamshire (to the southeast). The Sheffield Urban Area is the ninth most populous conurbation in the UK, and dominates the western half of South Yorkshire with over half of the county's population living within it.

South Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986, and so its districts (the metropolitan boroughs) are now effectively unitary authority areas; however, the metropolitan county, which is some 1,552 square kilometres (599 sq mi),[3][4] continues to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference. As a ceremonial county, South Yorkshire has a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff.

South Yorkshire is an amalgamation of 32 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, the West Riding of Yorkshire, and four independent county boroughs.